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In vitro fertilization is a „classical“ laboratory (ART) technique of fertilization outside the body, during which egg cells and sperm are “mixed“ in the laboratory where the sperm cells are left to spontaneously penetrate the eggs and fertilize them.
Due to the fact that on average, only every second egg gets fertilized in this way, another method of assisted reproduction has been developed - ICSI - in which a single sperm is injected into an egg using a microneedle.
Nowadays, the term IVF has a wider meaning and is sometimes used as a synonym for assisted reproductive technology, to describe a variety of different laboratory techniques used in ART.