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IVF Techniques

By way of introduction

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm outside the body. After fertilization has taken place an embryo is formed. Embryo growth begins with cell division of initially one “parent“cell. Growing embryos can be cultured in the laboratory up to 120 hours following fertilization. After this the outer cell mass, which will later give rise to the placenta, break through the protective layer -“shell“ of the embryo and the cells spread into the surrounding space and endometrium. At that stage the embryo must be inside the uterus as it starts to adhere to and penetrate the uterine lining (endometrium) – a process known as nidation. The pregnancy hormone (hCG) starts to be produced, is released into the bloodstream, then it gets into the urine where it can be detected by a pregnancy test. In vitro fertilization can be performed using own reproductive cells (oocytes and sperm) of a couple, or donor cells.

Treatment techniques

Egg donation /IVF DO - IVF with donor eggs

If a woman cannot get pregnant using her own egg cells, donor eggs provided by an eligible, anonymous donor are fertilized by the sperm of the patient’s partner.

Egg donation is legal in the Czech Republic and it is subject to rigorous control by the state authorities. Egg donors are healthy women between 18 and 35 years of age. All egg donors undergo a thorough medical screening assessing their physical as well as psychological health condition. Genetic testing aimed at detecting/ruling out genetic disorders, as well as STD testing for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases ( HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis) form an integral part of the medical screening.

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IVF DE – donor embryo

In case of unsuccessful fertilization attempts using own reproductive cells of a couple, in vitro fertilization involves the use of donor embryos from eligible anonymous egg and sperm donors.

Sperm and egg donation are legal in the Czech Republic and they are subject to rigorous control by the state authorities. Egg donors are healthy women between 18 and 35 years of age, sperm donors are healthy men between 18 and 40 years of age. All donors undergo a thorough medical screening assessing their physical as well as psychological health condition. Genetic testing aimed at detecting/ruling out genetic disorders, as well as STD testing for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases ( HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, in case of sperm donor salso chlamydia) form an integral part of the medical screening.

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IVF DS – donor sperm

In case of unsuccessful fertilization attempts using her partner’s sperm, egg cells of a woman are fertilized by the sperm of an eligible anonymous donor.

Sperm donation is legal in the Czech Republic and it is subject to rigorous control by the state authorities. Sperm donors are healthy men between 18 and 40 years of age. All donors undergo a thorough medical screening assessing their physical as well as psychological health condition. Genetic testing aimed at detecting/ruling out genetic disorders, as well as STD testing for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases ( HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, chlamydia) form an integral part of the medical screening.

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IVF

In vitro fertilization is a „classical“ laboratory (ART) technique of fertilization outside the body, during which egg cells and sperm are “mixed“ in the laboratory where the sperm cells are left to spontaneously penetrate the eggs and fertilize them.

Due to the fact that on average, only every second egg gets fertilized in this way, another method of assisted reproduction has been developed – ICSI – in which a single sperm is injected into an egg using a microneedle.

Nowadays, the term IVF has a wider meaning and is sometimes used as a synonym for assisted reproductive technology, to describe a variety of different laboratory techniques used in ART.

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Hysteroscopy – examination of uterine cavity

Hysteroscopy is a gynecological endoscopic procedure when a uterine cavity is examined from the inside with an optic tool – hysteroscope.

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PESA/MESA/TESE – Surgical sperms retrieval

In the event of absence of vital sperms in the ejaculate, the possibility of getting sperms by surgical means from epididymis (PESA or MESA) or from testicle (TESE) should be considered.

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Surgical Treatment

A timely indication for surgical treatment is a vital part of the fertility treatment. Surgical treatment in reproductive medicine must be as delicate as possible, to avoid any loss of ovarian tissue. The optimal treatment in reproductive surgery is minimally invasive surgery, such as laparoscopic surgery and hysteroscopy.